Testicular biopsy is the collection of some testicular tissue sample to obtain sperm directly from the testicles or its ducts. This test is performed when no sperm are found in the ejaculate (Azoospermia). This may be due to the blockage of the spermatic ducts or some change in the sperm production.
Karyotype or chromosomes analysis:
Chromosomes analysis is done through a blood test. The karyotype assesses the number of chromosomes and its characteristics. In some cases, infertility might be associated to chromosomal changes in number or structure. This test is done when there are too drastic changes in sperm number or motility, and even when genetic changes are suspected.
Sperm DNA Fragmentation Study:
This study is complementary to the traditional semen analysis. It is specially required in case of fertilisation failure, embryo loss and repetitive abortion.
It is a test that gives additional information on sperm quality and allows the determination of their DNA fragmentation levels.
Changes on sperm DNA fragmentation levels are more frequently found in men aged above 45, smokers and exposed to toxic or polluting products. Men under oncological treatments or vasectomy, or suffering from infectious diseases may also be affected by these changes.
It is a test to the uterus cavity, which detects changes or the presence of polyps. These changes might be connected to infertility or increase the probability of miscarriages.
Laparoscopy or Celioscopy:
It is a surgical test to determine the anatomy of the female reproductive system. It allows diagnosing endometriosis or adherences, for instance. Laparoscopy is only performed when advised.